Ever wanted a specific directory in your site to be available only to people who you want it to be available to? Ever got frustrated with the seeming holes in client-side options for this that allowed virtually anyone with enough skill to mess around in your source to get in? htaccess is the answer!
The first thing you will need to do is create a file called .htpasswd. I know, you might have problems with the naming convention, but it is the same idea behind naming the htaccess file itself, and you should be able to do that by this point. In the htpasswd file, you place the username and password (which is encrypted) for those whom you want to have access.
For example, a username and password of wsabstract (and I do not recommend having the username being the same as the password), the htpasswd file would look like this:
Notice that it is UserName first, followed by the Password. There is a handy-dandy tool available for you to easily encrypt the password into the proper encoding for use in the httpasswd file.
For security, you should not upload the htpasswd file to a directory that is web accessible (yoursite.com/.htpasswd), it should be placed above your www root directory. You'll be specifying the location to it later on, so be sure you know where you put it. Also, this file, as with htaccess, should be uploaded as ASCII and not BINARY.
Create a new htaccess file and place the following code in it:
AuthUserFile /usr/local/you/safedir/.htpasswd AuthGroupFile /dev/null AuthName EnterPassword AuthType Basic require user wsabstract
The first line is the full server path to your htpasswd file. If you have installed scripts on your server, you should be familiar with this. Please note that this is not a URL, this is a server path. Also note that if you place this htaccess file in your root directory, it will password protect your entire site, which probably isn't your exact goal.
The second to last line require user is where you enter the username of those who you want to have access to that portion of your site. Note that using this will allow only that specific user to be able to access that directory. This applies if you had an htpasswd file that had multiple users setup in it and you wanted each one to have access to an individual directory. If you wanted the entire list of users to have access to that directory, you would replace Require user xxx with require valid-user.
The AuthName is the name of the area you want to access. It could anything, such as "EnterPassword". You can change the name of this 'realm' to whatever you want, within reason.
We are using AuthType Basic because we are using basic HTTP authentication.
- Tutorial Introduction
- Error Documents
- Password protection
- Enabling SSI via htaccess
- Blocking users by IP
- Blocking users/ sites by referrer
- Blocking bad bots and site rippers (aka offline browsers)
- Change your default directory page
- Prevent viewing of htaccess
- Adding MIME types
- Preventing hot linking of your images and other file types
- Preventing directory listing
- Conclusion and more information